The Arabic and Berber languages are distantly related, both being members of the Afroasiatic language family. Morocco seems to be all the craze with tourists these days, but the others have much to offer in their own unique ways as well. Its economy is largely based on hydrocarbons. Morocco occupies 710,850 km2 of land area characterized by desert and mountains. The desert landscape is one of the toughest to navigate and endure, best of luck! The Maghreb or western North Africa on the whole is believed to have been inhabited by Berbers since at least 10,000 B.C., while the eastern part of North Africa or the Nile Valley has mainly been home to the Egyptians.  The countries of North Africa share a common ethnic, cultural and linguistic identity with the Middle East or West Asia, and is unique to this region as compared to Sub-Saharan Africa. These countries, along with Mauritania and Tunisia, are often referred to as the Maghreb. Some researchers have postulated that North Africa rather than East Africa served as the exit point for the modern humans who first trekked out of the continent in the Out of Africa migration.. There are over one billion people living in the African continent. " Early humans may have comprised a large, interbreeding population dispersed across Africa whose spread was facilitated by a wetter climate that created a "green Sahara", around 330,000 to 300,000 years ago. A wide variety of valuable crops including cereals, rice and cotton, and woods such as cedar and cork, are grown. Egypt has the most varied industrial base, importing technology to develop electronics and engineering industries, and maintaining the reputation of its high-quality cotton textiles. Over the years, Berbers have been influenced by contact with other cultures: Greeks, Phoenicians, Egyptians, Romans, Vandals, Arabs, Europeans and Africans. The Sahara covers the southern part of Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia, and most of Libya. Like Algeria, desert covers most of Egypt. Tunisians have a diverse economy which continues to enjoy growth in the current economic climate. The Sahara and the Sahel entered the geographic corpus by way of naturalist explorers because aridity is the feature that circumscribes the boundaries of the ecumene. There remains a dispute over Western Sahara between Morocco and the Algerian-backed Polisario Front. That country is the Arab Republic of Egypt. The Arabic word "Sahel" (shore) and "Sahara" (desert) made its entry into the vocabulary of geography. The Maghreb formerly had a significant Jewish population, almost all of whom emigrated to France or Israel when the North African nations gained independence. Some Berbers were members of the Early African Church (but evolved their own Donatist doctrine), some were Berber Jews, and some adhered to traditional Berber religion. This, however, may or may not exclude pride in and identification with Berber and/or other parts of their heritage. Berber political and cultural activists for their part, often referred to as Berberists, may view all Northwest Africans as principally Berber, whether they are primarily Berber- or Arabic-speaking. Gradually, the Sahara-Sahel is further divided into a total of twenty sub-areas: central, northern, southern, western, eastern, etc. She was also rejected by the Trojan prince Aeneas according to Virgil, thus creating a historical enmity between Carthage and Rome, as Aeneas would eventually lay the foundations for Rome. North Africa's populous and flourishing civilization collapsed after exhausting its resources in internal fighting and suffering devastation from the invasion of the Banu Sulaym and Banu Hilal. Libyan oil is especially prized because of its low sulfur content, which means it produces much less pollution than other fuel oils. Revenues from oil make up 80% of the country’s GDP and 90% of its export revenue. The earliest inhabitants of central North Africa have left behind significant remains: early remnants of hominid occupation in North Africa, for example, were found in Ain el Hanech, near Saïda (c. 200,000 BCE); in fact, more recent investigations have found signs of Oldowan technology there, and indicate a date of up to 1.8 million BCE. The Phoenicians colonized much of North Africa including Carthage and parts of present-day Morocco (including Chellah, Essaouira and Volubilis). Like, a lot more! These North African countries welcome you, stretching from the Atlantic shores of Morocco on the west coast all the way to the Suez Canal and the Red Sea in the east. North Africa is an economically prosperous area, generating one-third of Africa's total GDP. The type of government that exists in Morocco is a constitutional monarchy. The largest ethnic groups in North Africa Berbers and West Africans in the west and the Arabs in the east approaching the Middle East. In the Maghreb, where Arab and Berber identities are often integrated, these lines can be blurred. The region is predominantly Muslim with a Jewish minority in Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia, and significant Christian minority—the Copts—in Egypt, Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia.. North Africa is a region encompassing the northern portion of the African continent. The focus of Roman energy had to be on the emerging threat of the Huns. Over a hundred years and more, all Carthaginian territory was eventually conquered by the Romans, resulting in the Carthaginian North African territories becoming the Roman province of Africa in 146 B.C. Arabic-speaking Northwest Africans, regardless of ethnic background, often identify with Arab history and culture and may share a common vision with other Arabs. In this way, "standard" geography has determined aridity to be the boundary of the ecumene. The median age in Northern Africa is 25.5years. The Spanish Empire conquered several coastal cities between the 16th and 18th centuries. , The cave paintings found at Tassili n'Ajjer, north of Tamanrasset, Algeria, and at other locations depict vibrant and vivid scenes of everyday life in central North Africa during the Neolithic Subpluvial period (about 8000 to 4000 BCE). To survive in North Africa, you have to accept the desert as your master, and then overcome it! A reason that countries with coastal access have limited water resources in North Africa is Aquifers beneath the Sahara The Great Man-Made River provides water for drinking and irrigation by using pipelines to pump water from Welcome to the other side of the Mediterranean! Northern Africa countries (7 questions) Western Africa countries (16 questions) Western Africa Capital cities (16 questions) Eastern Africa countries (11 questions) Central Africa countries (11 questions) Southern Africa countries (10 questions) Northwest Africa has been inhabited by Berbers since the beginning of recorded history, while the eastern part of North Africa has been home to the Egyptians. In 468 AD, the Romans made one last serious attempt to invade North Africa but were repelled. We implement comprehensive programs that integrate a focus on people, institutions, and communities and an understanding of how they interact to advance prosperity and social justice.  In general geopolitical and business usage, as for example with the World Bank, North Africa is often grouped with the Middle East under the acronym MENA ("Middle East and North Africa") and sometimes in American governmental usage the geopolitical term Greater Middle East. In 2010–2011 massive protests swept the region leading to the overthrow of the governments in Tunisia and Egypt, as well as civil war in Libya. The small island nation of São Tomé and Príncipe is located in the Gulf of Guinea, off the coast of Central Africa. After the 19th century, the imperial and colonial presence of France, the United Kingdom, Spain and Italy left the entirety of the region under one form of European occupation. During the 1950s and 1960s all of the North African states gained independence.  In places the desert is cut by irregular watercourses called wadis—streams that flow only after rainfalls but are usually dry. All signed the Agreement establishing the Bank in 1964, and all, with the exception of Libya, ), Due to the recent African origin of modern humans, the history of Prehistoric North Africa is important to the understanding of pre-hominid and early modern human history in Africa. Of course you know about the Egyptian pyramids, but did you know that Sudan has more pyramids than Egypt? South of the Atlas Mountains is the dry and barren expanse of the Sahara desert, which is the largest sand desert in the world. The most notable nations of antiquity in western North Africa are Carthage and Numidia. Tunisians government consists of a president who is head of state and a Prime Minister who is head of government. Its population of over 10 million inhabitants inhabits a land area that covers 163,610 km2. The 2013 estimate showed that 6,411,776 persons lived in Libya. This will be a tall order for the five North African countries. Algeria covers 2,381,741 sq km. It occupies 1,010,407.87 km 2 of land area that spans North Africa and Southeast Asia. The Kingdom of Morocco is a nation located in North Africa. Go back to see more maps of Africa. They recede to the south and east, becoming a steppe landscape before meeting the Sahara desert, which covers more than 75 percent of the region. According to the United Nations âNorth Africaâ comprises of seven countries and territories; they are Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Sudan, Tunisia, and Western Sahara. "Northern Africa" redirects here. , The official languages in the countries making up the Maghreb are Tamazight which is also known as Berber, and Arabic and French as administrative languages. The term may be self explanatory, the northern region of Africa; but as is the case with everything else in life, things are that simple. Northern Africa: Countries - Map Quiz Game Northern Africa: Countries: Algeria , Egypt , Libya , Morocco , Sudan , Tunisia , Western Sahara (7) Create custom quiz 100 % The UN subregion of North Africa consists of 7 countries at the northernmost part of the continent -- Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Sudan, Tunisia, Western Sahara. South of the Atlas Mountains is the dry and largely barren expansâ¦ With a population of over 170 million and growing, Nigeria is the largest of the countries. North Africa is a region encompassing the northern portion of the African continent. Egypt and the Nile River valley formed a cultural hearth, a place where ideas and innovations come together to change a region. The North Africa campaigns were a series of World War II battles for control of the Suez Canal, a vital lifeline for Britainâs colonial empire, and the oil resources of the Middle East. The King rules over a population of over 33 million citizens. North African countries list. Similarly, the traditional Arabic toponym Maghreb (meaning "the West") is commonly used to mean the African part of the Arab World, though usually with the exclusion of Egypt. km, Algeria happens to be the largest country in Africa. The Mediterranean Sea borders the nation of Tunisia on its east and north side by the Mediterranean Sea. On June 15, Wavell sought to regain the momentum in North Africa and launched Operation Battleaxe. The North Africa region includes modern-day Morocco, Algeria, Western Sahara and Libya. Keep reading: Take a journey through West Africa and East Africa next. Countries of North Africa: Algeria, Egypt, Sudan, Tunisia, Mauritania, Western Sahara, Mali, Libya, Morocco, Niger and Chad . The People's Democratic Republic of Algeria is Africa's largest nation with an area of 919,595 mi2. The Atlas Mountains extend across much of northern Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia. Asia Map. Note: This is still a disputed land subject to ongoing conflict. GCC With the exception of Iraq, all Arab states bordering the gulf make up the union, making the membership (alphabetically) Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. In September 2019, scientists reported the computerized determination, based on 260 CT scans, of a virtual skull shape of the last common human ancestor to modern humans/H.  Nevertheless, changes in northern Africa's ecology after 3500 BCE provided the backdrop for the formation of dynastic civilizations and the construction of monumental architecture such as the Pyramids of Giza.. As the Tassili n'Ajjer and other rock art findings in the Sahara have shown, the Sahara also hosted various populations before its rapid desertification in 3500 B.C and even today continues to host small populations of nomadic trans-Saharan peoples. These mountains are part of the fold mountain system that also runs through much of Southern Europe. Despite its size, Libya has a small population relative to other African nations. Of the 17 nations, 12 are in the Middle East and North Africa, according to an analysis released on Tuesday by Washington D.C.-based World Resources Instituteâs Aqueduct Water Risk Atlas. Algerian also has the l largest defense budget in Africa. Sheltered valleys in the Atlas Mountains, the Nile Valley and Delta, and the Mediterranean coast are the main sources of fertile farming land. The diverse peoples of North Africa are usually categorized along ethno-linguistic lines. You might like: Must See Places When Visiting Tunisia, Western Sahara is just a small territory in North Africa covered mostly in desert. These peoples, physically quite similar, formed a single population in many areas, as Berbers and Egyptians merged into Arabic and Muslim culture. Its 92 million inhabitants, majority observing the religion of Isla, make Egypt the most populous country in North Africa and the Arab World. Subscribe to get special offers and the latest offers from the Afrikanza team. Large protests also occurred in Algeria and Morocco to a lesser extent. Even scholars debate what nations should officially constitute this nation, and there are something along the lines of 3 scholarly accepted definitions. The islands were only recently inhabited after their discovery by the Portuguese sailors in the 15th century. The largest sector is the services industry which contributes 62% of the GDP. Most of this land space is covered in sand. The loss of North Africa is considered a pinnacle point in the fall of the Western Roman Empire as Africa had previously been an important grain province that maintained Roman prosperity despite the barbarian incursions, and the wealth required to create new armies. However, these areas are not generally considered part of North Africa, but rather Southern Europe, due to their European-based cultures and religion. Recent finds in Jebel Irhoud in Morocco have been found to contain some of the oldest Homo sapiens remains; This suggests that, rather than arising only in East Africa around 200,000 years ago, early Homo sapiens may already have been present across the length of Africa 100,000 years earlier. The Numidian wars are notable for launching the careers of both Gaius Marius, and Sulla, and stretching the constitutional burden of the Roman republic as Marius required a professional army, something previously contrary to Roman values, to overcome the talented military leader Jugurtha. The cultures of the Maghreb and the Sahara therefore combine indigenous Berber, Arab and elements from neighboring parts of Africa and beyond. 99% of the country's inhabitants are Arab-Berbers, and the official languages of Algeria are Arabic and Berber. The Nile Valley forms a narrow fertile thread that runs along the length of the country. Planning a visit to one? Indigenous Berbers subsequently started to form their own polities in response in places such as Fez and Sijilmasa. Some Berber-speaking North Africans may identify as "Arab" depending on the social and political circumstances, although substantial numbers of Berbers (or Amazighen) have retained a distinct cultural identity which in the 20th century has been expressed as a clear ethnic identification with Berber history and language. Historians mark their movement as a critical moment in the Arabization of North Africa. Others[Like whom?] British Pushes in North Africa . The economy is largely built around hydrocarbons with Algeria having the second largest oil reserves in Africa. North African cuisine is the product of a whole host of historical, cultural and topographical factors. Some parts of North Africa began to participate in the Neolithic revolution in the 6th millennium BCE, just before the rapid desertification of the Sahara around 3500 B.C. Those ideas and innovations reached other regions through cultural diffusion. North Africa includes a number of Spanish and Portuguese possessions, Plazas de soberanía, Ceuta and Melilla and the Canary Islands and Madeira. The rise of modern humans may thus have taken place on a continental scale rather than being confined to a particular corner of Africa.  The Islamic influence in the area is also significant and North Africa is a major part of the Muslim world. Below we discuss the main 3 sub-regions (GCC, Levant, and North Africa) and mention which countries fall into each. Although the number of indigenous people in northern Africa is small, they try to preserve their traditions.  This led to tension and eventually conflict between Numidia and Rome. Its 92 million inhabitants, majority observing the religion of Isla, make Egypt the most populous country in North Africa and â¦ In the north it is separated from Europe by the Mediterranean Sea, in the northeast, is separated from Asia by the Suez Canal and farther by the Red Sea. Oil rigs are scattered throughout the deserts of Libya and Algeria. North Africa, region of Africa comprising the modern countries of Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, and Libya. Overview of North Africa North African countries hold an important place in the Bank Group's history: all were present in Khartoum (Sudan), when newly independent African countries gathered to discuss the creation of a premier financial institution for Africans, by Africans. The inhabitants of the Spanish Canary Islands are of mixed Spanish and North African Berber ancestry, and the people of Malta are of North African ancestry and speak a derivative of Arabic. (See Jewish exodus from Arab and Muslim countries. Designed to push the German Afrika Korps out of Eastern Cyrenaica and relieve the besieged British troops at Tobruk, the operation was a total failure as Wavell's attacks were broken on the German defenses. It's an area of stark contrast, with the hospitable Mediterranean coast to the north and the vast, harsh Sahara to the south. We partner with civil society, journalists and media outlets, libraries, teachers, youth, and community leaders, among others. Occupying 1,886,068 km2 of land space, it is the third largest country in Africa and the Arab world. The people of the Maghreb and the Sahara regions speak Berber languages and several varieties of Arabic and almost exclusively follow Islam.  Some Phoenician and Greek colonies were established along the Mediterranean coast during the 7th century BCE. List of countries in Africa. The most spoken language is Darija, which is a form of ancient Arabic dating back from the 8th century AD that follows a Berber grammatical and syntactical structure. Europe Map. There you have it, the countries of North Africa all in one place. Today, less than fifteen thousand remain in the region, almost all in Morocco and Tunisia, and are mostly part of a French-speaking urban elite. The Sahel or "African Transition Zone" has been affected by many formative epochs in North African history ranging from Ottoman occupation to the Arab-Berber control of the Andalus. The issue of regaining North Africa became paramount to the Western Empire, but was frustrated by Vandal victories. To alleviate some of the economic desperation driving migrants north, Europe set up the $1.8 billion Emergency Trust Fund for Africa in late 2015 to pay for projects including education development and employment support in 23 African countries that typically feed the migrant flow. Its economy is largely dependent on the oil production. The tallest peaks are in the High Atlas range in south-central Morocco, which has many snow-capped peaks. It identifies settlements based on visible activity without regard for social or political organizations of space in vast, purportedly "empty" areas. The Republic of Sudan is almost known as North Sudan since its split from South Sudan in 2011. The Maghreb or Maghrib is a region of North Africa, the term refers to the five North African nations of Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Mauritania, and Libya. Here is an alphabetical list of all countries in North Africa: Algeria, Egypt, â¦ Africa by Region. The total land area is 7,769,438 Km2 (2,999,796 sq. You can get in touch with us on firstname.lastname@example.org. Persons lived in Libya Democratic Republic of Egypt is also desert, the. 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